Sampling event

Hydrographic profiles in South West Atlantic Ocean derived from Southern Elephant seals dives

Latest version published by ArOBIS Centro Nacional Patagónico on 07 January 2021 ArOBIS Centro Nacional Patagónico
The resource contains 3181 data derived from sensors (Time Depth Recorder) placed on southern elephant seals. Sea temperature, depth and diving location were stored in eMof format as mean, minimum and maximum values. Data were obtained during the marine-pelagic phase of 9 seals tracked between 1995 to 2008, along the SW Atlantic Ocean, covered all seasons. The novelty of this dataset is that being also available as Linked Open Data (LOD) through the SPARQL endpoint The dataset is a subset of a larger dataset (Records at sea of juveniles southern elephant seals,Mirounga leonina, from Península Valdés, Argentina)
Publication date:
07 January 2021
CC-BY 4.0

Data Records

The data in this sampling event resource has been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A), which is a standardized format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table contains 3,190 records.

2 extension data tables also exist. An extension record supplies extra information about a core record. The number of records in each extension data table is illustrated below.

  • Event (core)
  • ExtendedMeasurementOrFact 
  • Occurrence 

This IPT archives the data and thus serves as the data repository. The data and resource metadata are available for download in the downloads section. The versions table lists other versions of the resource that have been made publicly available and allows tracking changes made to the resource over time.


Download the latest version of this resource data as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A) or the resource metadata as EML or RTF:

Data as a DwC-A file download 3,190 records in English (200 kB) - Update frequency: unknown
Metadata as an EML file download in English (17 kB)
Metadata as an RTF file download in English (15 kB)


The table below shows only published versions of the resource that are publicly accessible.

How to cite

Researchers should cite this work as follows:

Zárate M (2020): Hydrographic profiles in South West Atlantic Ocean derived from Southern Elephant seals dives. v1.6. ArOBIS Centro Nacional Patagónico. Dataset/Samplingevent.


Researchers should respect the following rights statement:

The publisher and rights holder of this work is ArOBIS Centro Nacional Patagónico. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 License.

GBIF Registration

This resource has been registered with GBIF, and assigned the following GBIF UUID: d2008378-84c9-4809-95ed-84cbf1bd0849.  ArOBIS Centro Nacional Patagónico publishes this resource, and is itself registered in GBIF as a data publisher endorsed by Ocean Biodiversity Information System.


Mirounga leonina; South West Atlantic Ocean; Bio-logging; Sea temperature; Linked Open Data.


Who created the resource:

Marcos Zárate
ArOBIS Data Manager
Bv. Almte Brown 2915
9120 Puerto Madryn

Who can answer questions about the resource:

Marcos Zárate
ArOBIS Data Manager
Bv. Almte Brown 2915
9120 Puerto Madryn

Who filled in the metadata:

Mirtha Lewis
ArOBIS Node Manager
Bv. Almte Brown 2915
9120 Puerto Madryn

Geographic Coverage

Argentina continental shelf, shelf break, and Atlantic basin of the South West Atlantic Ocean, South America.

Bounding Coordinates South West [-55.529, -67.852], North East [-40.447, -25.664]

Taxonomic Coverage

Species  Mirounga leonina (southern elephant seal)

Temporal Coverage

Start Date / End Date 1995-10-31 / 1996-02-10
Start Date / End Date 2004-07-12 / 2004-11-05
Start Date / End Date 2004-07-13 / 2004-11-06
Start Date / End Date 2005-07-30 / 2005-11-10
Start Date / End Date 2005-07-30 / 2005-11-12
Start Date / End Date 2006-12-28 / 2007-06-28
Start Date / End Date 2008-01-16 / 2008-09-19
Start Date / End Date 2008-01-17 / 2008-09-20
Start Date / End Date 2008-01-16 / 2008-09-19

Project Data

The program started in 1990 to study ecology and life history strategies of southern elephant seals, together with the research of foraging areas in the ecosystem of SW Atlantic Ocean. The research site on land is mainly Península Valdés (PV), which has been a UNESCO World Natural Heritage since 1999. Ancillary bio-logging work addresses diving behavior in an ecosystem context providing a greater understanding of fundamental ecosystem processes in the South Atlantic Ocean, using southern elephant seals as oceanographic sampling platform.

Title Temporal and spatial distribution of the southern elephant seal colony in Península Valdés, Argentina
Identifier CENPAT_SouthernElephantSeals_SWAtlantic
Funding National Research Council of Argentina (CONICET), annual grants from the Wildlife Conservation Society and Agencia Nacional de Promocion Científica y Tecnológica (Grants PICT 01- 11749, 07-06420 and PIP04 6138), CONICET (Grant PIP 02462-1123/03).
Study Area Description The geographic coverage of the project includes the Patagonian coast of Argentina, with Península Valdés as the main point of field work and observation. The Patagonian shelf, from the edge of the Patagonian shelf and the Argentine Basin in the SW Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific area. Mixed subtropical-subpolar waters characterize five oceanographic regimes in terms of water masses, currents and productivity. 1) Open continental shelf waters of subantarctic origin. 2) Shelf break front a narrow transition region between subpolar (Malvinas/Falkland Current) and shelf waters. 3) Subtropical waters carried by the Brazil Current collide with the cold-fresh subpolar waters of the Malvinas Current. It is characterized by enhanced meridional gradients of sea surface temperature and salinity, and its location has high seasonal and interannual variability. 4) Subpolar characterized by low salinity, cold temperatures and high concentrations of nutrients. 5) Polar with low temperature (4 °C) and relatively high nutrient concentration waters derived from the Antarctic Circumpolar Current.
Design Description Systematics studies were conducted on southern elephant seals. Standardized surveys provided information on the abundance, trend, change in distribution and movements at sea could be used as conservation indicators and spatial planning. Deployment and recoveries of data loggers from animals that breed and molt at Peninsula Valdes provided information regarding locations, behavior and habitat use.

The personnel involved in the project:

Principal Investigator
Mirtha Lewis
Principal Investigator
Claudio Campagna

Sampling Methods

Satellite tags (SPOT4/SPOT5 and SPLASH Wildlife Computers, Redmond, Washington, and TDR were deployed on 8 juveniles southern elephant seals and one subadult male, during their haul out at Península Valdés, Patagonia, Argentina. Tags were configured to send information through Argos System as soon as the animals entered the water. The configuration of satellite telemeters and the location data analyses were described in Campagna et al. (2006, 2007).

Study Extent Records coverage locations during the foraging pelagic trip that includes the marine plateaus in the Southern Hemisphere, from the edge of the Patagonian shelf and to the Argentine Basin in the SW Atlantic Ocean, and South Pacific area. Most of the records of each animal are one trip from and to Peninsula Valdes. Temporal coverage is described as interval tracking. Each track session starts when the animal is tagged and finished when the instrument is recovered. Each location was provided by the Argos System ( and the frequency depended of the behavior of elephant seals at sea and their time surface intervals.
Quality Control The oceanographic vocabulary use the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Vocabulary Server and GeoSPARQL for supporting the representation and querying of geospatial data on the Semantic Web. All sampling locations have been plotted on a map to perform a visual check if all sampling locations are within the described sampling area.

Method step description:

  1. Instruments (Wildlife Computers, Redmond, Washington; instrument description at: were glued directly on the fur of the head using a 10-min setting epoxy resin (Campagna et al., 1999). Tags were configured to send information as soon as the animals entered the water, 24 h per day with repetition rates of 45±6 s in 2003-2004 and 40±6 s in 2005-2006 (Campagna et al 2006,2007) . Locations were received daily via e-mail; Argos provide the estimated accuracy of each location, however, a filter was applied to exclude locations that would require an unrealistic travel rate. Location of hydrographic data belongs to upward phase of the dive.

Bibliographic Citations

  1. Campagna, C., Piola, A. R., Marin, M. R., Lewis, M., Fernández, T. (2006). Southern Elephant Seals trajectories, fronts and eddies in the Brazil/Malvinas Confluence. Deep-Sea Research I, 53, 1907–1924. Campagna, C., Piola, A. R., Marin, M. R., Lewis, M., Zajaczkovski, U., Fernández, T. (2007). Deep divers in shallow seas: Southern Elephant Seals on the Patagonian shelf. Deep-Sea Research I, 54, Campagna, C., Fedak, M., Lewis, M., Staniland, I., Thompson, D., Trathan, R.. Wilson y V. Falabella (2009). Pinípedos, Lobos y elefantes marinos (44-77) In V. Falabella, C. Campagna, J. Croxall (Eds.), Atlas del Mar Patagónico, Especies y Espacios. Buenos Aires, Wildlife Conservation Society, BirdLife International. http://www Sala J.E., Quintana F.,Wilson R.P., Dignani J.,Lewis M., Campagna C.( (2011). Pitching a new angle on elephant seal dive patterns. Polar Biology D-10-00242R1 Eder E., Lewis M., Marin M. R., Campagna C.(2011). On- and off-shelf diving effort of juvenile elephant seals from Península Valdés determined by light loggers. Journal of Mammalogy. Vol. 92, No. 4, pp. 811-818. doi: 10.1644/10-MAMM-A-292.1 CAMPAGNA J., LEWIS M., GONZÁLEZ CARMAN V., CAMPAGNA C., GUINET C., JOHNSON M., DAVIS R., RODRÍGUEZ D., HINDELL M. 2020. Ontogenetic niche partitioning in southern elephant seals from Argentine Patagonia. Marine Mammal Science :1-21- DOI: 10.1111/mms.12770

Additional Metadata